Ice Hockey: History, Rules, Playgrounds, Implements: The hockey is a family of sports in which two teams compete to take a hard ball or a rubber disc to the opposing goal to score a goal with the help of a long stick called stick. Although several forms (inline skates, underwater …), I will focus, in this work, there are three major ice on skates and on grass.
“HOCKEY: History, Rules, Playgrounds, Implements are below”
Ice Hockey History
DESCRIPTION, PLAYERS AND PURPOSE.
2.1. Ice hockey is a sport played between two teams with skates on an ice rink. Skaters must run a rubber disk ( puck ) with a long stick ( stick ). The number of players per team is six (five players + goalkeeper) and the goal is to score goals in the opposite direction.
2.2. Hockey skates or skate hockey is a sport that is played between two teams. Players thanks to four – wheel skates (parallel) move and use a stick or wooden stick with a curved shape to drive a rubber ball. The number of players per team is five (four players + goalkeeper) and the goal is to score goals in the opposing goal.
2.3. The hockey or hockey is a sport in which two rival teams compete to throw a ball in the opposing team ‘s goal (goal) with the help of a stick that allows to control the ball. The number of players per team is eleven (ten players + goalkeeper). The goal is to score more goals than the opposing team at the end of the regular game time.
- HISTORY: ORIGINS, FIRST COMPETITIONS.
3.1. Ice hockey was invented in Canada in the nineteenth century by European immigrants who adapted the grass hockey and other sports such as shinty hurling or the climate of the area. The first friendly matches were played between British soldiers on frozen water surfaces, such as rivers and lakes. In its beginnings, they were played with semicircular sticks and rubber ball. Many say it was a game of Canadian natives, known as tooadijik , the origin of this sport.
On March 3, 1875, it was the first time that a indoor game was played in the city of Montreal, and in 1877 several McGill University students decided to write the first ice hockey rules. The first European teams arose in England from the universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
3.2. Hockey skates is considered to have been invented in the late nineteenth century England by Edward Crawford, as an adaptation of ice hockey. By the end of the nineteenth century, practice had spread throughout most of Europe, and in the first decades of the twentieth century began to practice in Latin America.
Cerdanyola HC, of Cerdanyola del Valle (Barcelona), was the first Spanish team that federated on September 3, 1936 to the Catalan Federation of Skating.
3.3. Field hockey or lawn is a very old sport that practiced people of high social status, although its true origin is unknown. There are drawings of two people using sticks with a ball in Ancient Egypt. Also, there is a relief of the Middle Ages where you can see people playing with sticks and balls. It is also believed that it may have originated in Asia and, hence, British settlers could have adopted it and taken it to Europe. Thus, at the end of the 19th century, the first grass hockey association was created.
- GAME LAND.
4.1. The field where you play ice hockey is an ice rink, specially designed for this sport and known as rink . The court has a rectangular shape, measuring 61 meters long by 30 ancho.Todas tracks have rounded corners to prevent the puck to stop. An opaque wall surrounds the field and prevents the puck to leave it. Above that wall is another transparent that allows viewers a broad view of the game, while protecting them. Players can use the walls during their game. At the center of the track is a red line that divides the field in half. There are two other red lines, known as goal lines that are located at each end of the rectangle, four meters from the end of the track. The goal is in front of each goal line.
4.2. The playing field of hockey has rectangle shape and dimensions must present provided, so that the longitudinal extension must correspond to twice the width, and whose boundaries are as follows:
- Minimum – 34 x 17 meters
- Standard – 40 x 20 meters
- Maximum – 44 x 22 meters
The entire perimeter of the track is limited by a base. There is a central line that divides the field into two halves. In each of the two halves is a line of goal, parallel to the bottom of the track and distance to it between 2.70 meters and 3.30 meters.
4.3 . The field of hockey is formed by a rectangle of hundred yards long by sixty wide, equivalent to about 91.4 m long and 55 m wide. It is divided by a center line and two lines called lines 22 , located to 22.90 m (25 yards) from the baselines where the goalposts are located.
In front of goal, there is an area of approximately semicircular form, call the circle or small area . The function of the circle or small area is very important:
- Only balls that have been touched by any player in attack within the circle before entering the goal constitute a goal.
- The faults perpetrated by defenders within the circle are aggravated:
. An involuntary lack is sanctioned with a penalty corner or short corner .
. Willful misconduct is punished with a penalty stroke, stroke or criminal .
- OLYMPIC CHAMPIONSHIPS AND GAMES.
5.1 . The first World Championship Ice Hockey in the men ‘s category was held in the city of Antwerp (Belgium), being champion the Canadian team. In the women’s category, also was the selection of Canada the first champion
World Cup in Ottawa (Canada) in 1990.
The first time she appeared as an Olympic sport was at the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix. On that occasion, the Olympic champion was Canada.
5.2. The hockey has two World Championship: Championship A (with the 16 best teams in the world), and a Championship B (with the 16 nations of lower level). Each Championship is held every two years in turn. The first Championship A, celebrated in 1936 in Stuttgart (Germany), had as champion the selection of England. France was the first Champion of Championship B celebrated in 1984 in Paris (France).
As for the Olympics, this modality is the only one of the three that is not an Olympic sport. However, it was present as a sport of exhibition in the Olympic Games of 1992 held in Barcelona, being champion the selection of Argentina and runner-up of Spain.
5.3. The field hockey , besides having the Olympic Games, two major championships worldwide: on the one hand, the World Cup of Hockey, whose first champion was Pakistan in the disputed Cup in Barcelona in 1971; And, on the other hand, the Trophy of Champions, in which the selections with better ranking participate. The champions in the men’s and women’s categories were Pakistan and Holland respectively, in the Tournaments celebrated in Pakistan (1978) and Holland (1987).
Grass hockey appears for the first time as an Olympic sport at the London Olympics in 1908, England being the champion.
- GAME RULES.
In this section I will explain only some of the most important rules in each of the three modalities:
6.1. Ice Hockey :
- – The game is divided into three periods of twenty minutes.
- – If at the end of the three periods the result is a draw, ten extra minutes are played, unless one of the teams scores a goal, in which case the match ends. If there are no goals, the tie is the final result.
- – The main way to defend is to charge.
- – If a player enters the attack zone before the disc, it occurs out of play.
- – The faults can be for holding, pushing, locking with the stick. Depending on the type of foul, slight or serious, the offender can be seated on the bench for a time of two or five minutes, respectively.
– The game is divided into two periods of twenty minutes.
- – When a team takes possession of the ball in its defensive zone, it has ten seconds to take it to the attacking area.
- – Passive play is when after a reasonable time, the attacking team does not intend to shoot on goal to score a goal.
- – Power-play is a sanction that temporarily leaves the team with one less player: two minutes, in the case of blue card, and four minutes in the case of a red card. The player returns when the penalty time elapses or when his team receives a goal.
6.3. Grass hockey:
- – The game is divided into two periods of thirty five minutes each.
- – To score a goal, the attacking player must throw the ball into the area.
- – The penalty corner is a penalty in which the ball must be placed in the bottom line, about 10 meters from goal. The player who throws the penalty-corner must have at least one foot off the pitch and his teammates must remain outside the area. Five defenders, at most, including the goalie, may be behind the bottom line with their sticks. To get a goal in a penalty corner, the ball can not exceed 46 inches in height.
- – The penalty stroke is a higher penalty, in which an attacker throws the ball from a point within the area, while the goalkeeper is in line gatehouse.